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KRAS/K-RAS  Protein, Antibody, ELISA Kit, cDNA Clone

Expression host: E. coli  
12259-H07E-50
12259-H07E-20
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Expression host: E. coli  
12259-H07E1-200
12259-H07E1-100
200 µg 
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Expression host: E. coli  
12259-H07E2-200
12259-H07E2-100
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KRAS/K-RAS Related Area

KRAS/K-RAS Related Pathways

KRAS/K-RAS Related Protein, Antibody, cDNA Gene, and ELISA Kits

KRAS/K-RAS Related Protein, Antibody, cDNA Gene, and ELISA Kits

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KRAS/K-RAS Summary & Protein Information

KRAS/K-RAS Background

Enzyme regulation: ENZYME REGULATION: Alternates between an inactive form bound to GDP and an active form bound to GTP. Activated by a guanine nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) and inactivated by a GTPase-activating protein (GAP). Interaction with SOS1 promotes exchange of bound GDP by GTP. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22431598, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22566140, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22711838}.
Subunit structure: Interacts with PHLPP. Interacts (active GTP-bound form preferentially) with RGS14 (By similarity). Interacts (when farnesylated) with PDE6D; this promotes dissociation from the cell membrane (PubMed:23698361). Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:22431598). {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P08644, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22431598, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23698361}.
Subcellular location: Cell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22431598, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23698361}; Lipid-anchor {ECO:0000305|PubMed:23698361}; Cytoplasmic side {ECO:0000305|PubMed:23698361}. Cytoplasm, cytosol {ECO:0000269|PubMed:23698361}.
Post-translational: Acetylation at Lys-104 prevents interaction with guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22711838, ECO:0000269|Ref.17}.
Involvement in disease: DISEASE: Leukemia, acute myelogenous (AML) [MIM:601626]: A subtype of acute leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells. AML is a malignant disease of bone marrow characterized by maturational arrest of hematopoietic precursors at an early stage of development. Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts occurs in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myelogenous leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:8955068}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic (JMML) [MIM:607785]: An aggressive pediatric myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative disorder characterized by malignant transformation in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment with proliferation of differentiated progeny. Patients have splenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, rashes, and hemorrhages. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Noonan syndrome 3 (NS3) [MIM:609942]: A form of Noonan syndrome, a disease characterized by short stature, facial dysmorphic features such as hypertelorism, a downward eyeslant and low-set posteriorly rotated ears, and a high incidence of congenital heart defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Other features can include a short neck with webbing or redundancy of skin, deafness, motor delay, variable intellectual deficits, multiple skeletal defects, cryptorchidism, and bleeding diathesis. Individuals with Noonan syndrome are at risk of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive production of myelomonocytic cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16773572, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17468812, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19396835}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Gastric cancer (GASC) [MIM:613659]: A malignant disease which starts in the stomach, can spread to the esophagus or the small intestine, and can extend through the stomach wall to nearby lymph nodes and organs. It also can metastasize to other parts of the body. The term gastric cancer or gastric carcinoma refers to adenocarcinoma of the stomach that accounts for most of all gastric malignant tumors. Two main histologic types are recognized, diffuse type and intestinal type carcinomas. Diffuse tumors are poorly differentiated infiltrating lesions, resulting in thickening of the stomach. In contrast, intestinal tumors are usually exophytic, often ulcerating, and associated with intestinal metaplasia of the stomach, most often observed in sporadic disease. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:14534542, ECO:0000269|PubMed:3034404, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7773929}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Note=Defects in KRAS are a cause of pylocytic astrocytoma (PA). Pylocytic astrocytomas are neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors.; DISEASE: Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 2 (CFC2) [MIM:615278]: A form of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, a multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects and mental retardation. Heart defects include pulmonic stenosis, atrial septal defects and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Some affected individuals present with ectodermal abnormalities such as sparse, friable hair, hyperkeratotic skin lesions and a generalized ichthyosis-like condition. Typical facial features are similar to Noonan syndrome. They include high forehead with bitemporal constriction, hypoplastic supraorbital ridges, downslanting palpebral fissures, a depressed nasal bridge, and posteriorly angulated ears with prominent helices. CFC2 patients often do not have the skin abnormalities, such as ichthyosis, hyperkeratosis, and hemangioma observed in CFC1. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16474404, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16474405, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17056636, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21797849}. Note=The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.; DISEASE: Note=KRAS mutations are involved in cancer development.
Sequence similarity: Belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. Ras family. {ECO:0000305}.
General information above from UniProt

K-Ras belongs to the small GTPase superfamily, Ras family. As other members of the Ras family, K-Ras is a GTPase and is an early player in many signal transduction pathways. It is usually tethered to cell membranes because of the presence of an isoprenyl group on its C-terminus. K-Ras functions as a molecular on/off switch. Once it is turned on it recruits and activates proteins necessary for the propagation of growth factor and other receptors' signal, such as c-Raf and PI 3-kinase. It binds to GTP in the active state and possesses an intrinsic enzymatic activity which cleaves the terminal phosphate of the nucleotide converting it to GDP. Upon conversion of GTP to GDP, K-Ras is turned off. The rate of conversion is usually slow but can be sped up dramatically by an accessory protein of the GTPase activating protein class, for example RasGAP. In turn K-Ras can bind to proteins of the Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor class, for example SOS1, which forces the release of bound nucleotide. Subsequently, K-Ras binds GTP present in the cytosol and the GEF is released from ras-GTP. Besides essential function in normal tissue signaling, the mutation of a K-Ras gene is an essential step in the development of many cancers. Several germline K-Ras mutations have been found to be associated with Noonan syndrome[4] and cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome. Somatic K-Ras mutations are found at high rates in Leukemias, colon cancer, pancreatic cancer and lung cancer.

KRAS/K-RAS Alternative Name

NS,NS3,CFC2,KRAS1,KRAS2,RASK2,KI-RAS,C-K-RAS,K-RAS2A,K-RAS2B,K-RAS4A,K-RAS4B, [homo-sapiens]
K-RAS2A,K-RAS2B,K-RAS4A,C-K-RAS,KI-RAS,KRAS,KRAS1,K-RAS4B,NS,NS3,RASK2,K-RAS,KRAS2, [human]
Kras-2,MGC7141,p21B,ras,AI929937,Ki-ras,Kras,RP24-359O2.1,Kras2,K-Ras, [mouse]
ras,Kras2,p21B,K-ras,Ki-ras,Kras-2,AI929937, [mus-musculus]

KRAS/K-RAS Related Studies

  • Ling J, et al. (2012) KrasG12D-induced IKK2//NF-B activation by IL-1 alpha and p62 feedforward loops is required for development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Cancer Cell. 21(1):105-20.
  • Matallanas D, et al. (2011) Mutant K-Ras activation of the proapoptotic MST2 pathway is antagonized by wild-type K-Ras. Mol Cell. 44(6):893-906.
  • Regala RP, et al. (2011) Matrix metalloproteinase-10 promotes Kras-mediated bronchio-alveolar stem cell expansion and lung cancer formation. PLoS One. 6(10):e26439.
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