The cluster of differentiation (CD) system is commonly used as cell markers in immunophynotyping. Different kinds of cells in the immune system can be identified through the surface CD molecules which associating with the immune function of the cell. There are more than 320 CD unique clusters and subclusters have been identified. Some of the CD molecules serve as receptors or ligands important to the cell through initiating a signal cascade which then alter the behavior of the cell. Some CD proteins do not take part in cell signal process but have other functions such as cell adhesion. CD124, also known as interleukin 4 receptor (IL4R), is a typeⅠ transmembrane protein that can regulate IgE antibody production in B cells through binding to interleukin 4 and interleukin 13 and promote differentiation of Th2 cells through binding to interleukin 4. The membrane-bound form of CD124 can be hydrolyzed to soluble form which can inhibit IL4-mediated cell proliferation and IL5 upregulation by T-cells.
Zola H, et al. (2007) CD molecules 2006-human cell differentiation molecules. J Immunol Methods. 318 (1-2): 1-5. Ho IC, et al. (2009) GATA3 and the T-cell lineage: essential functions before and after T-helper-2-cell differentiation. Nat Rev Immunol. 9 (2): 125-35. Matesanz-Isabel J, et al. (2011) New B-cell CD molecules. Immunology Letters.134 (2): 104-12.